In 2018, the production and sales of new energy vehicles in China reached 1.27 million and 1.256 million, respectively. Among them, the production and sales of pure electric vehicles still dominate, and the growth of plug-in hybrid vehicles and fuel cell vehicles is growing rapidly. Industry experts believe that new energy vehicles are the key development direction in the future. At the World New Energy Vehicles Conference in 2019, it is proposed to accelerate the technological innovation of new energy vehicles and the development of related industries.
Since 2009, China has promoted new energy vehicles. The first batch of new energy vehicle power batteries that have been put into the market are basically at the critical point of elimination. China Automotive Research Center pointed out that it is estimated that the cumulative scrap of power batteries for pure electric (including plug-in) passenger cars and hybrid passenger cars in China will reach 120,000-170,000 tons before and after 2020. The decommissioned power battery has high processing cost, poor economic efficiency, and wastes resources and energy. If it is incinerated, heavy metals such as iron, cobalt and nickel will pollute the ecological environment, and the organic materials in the positive and negative materials, diaphragms and electrolytes. It also threatens personal safety.
What are the main treatments for the first batch of power batteries that are about to face the tide of retiring? What are the main treatment methods on the market?
On July 22nd, at the 2019 Smart Car Safety Technology International Summit Forum held in Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, the director of the National Remanufactured Auto Parts Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center and the assistant of the Dean of the Suzhou Automobile Research Institute of Tsinghua University, Zheng Wei, proposed the current Battery processing methods mainly include ladder utilization, material recycling, etc.
The use of ladders is mainly for lightly scrapped batteries, and the performance of the battery is reduced to 30-80% of the original performance. It is generally recommended to use the ladders. After screening, disassembling, reorganizing, and pasting the ladders, the labels can be reused for energy storage systems and street lamps. In the fields of UPS power supply and low-speed electric vehicles, the steps mainly include disassembly, detection, grinding and grouping. The use of power battery ladders is one of the best ways to make full use of energy. It has both environmental protection and economic value, and realizes the comprehensive use of the life cycle of power batteries, maximizing the use value and economic benefits of decommissioned power batteries. In order to solve the problem of recycling and disposal of used power batteries, the state has formulated more than 30 industrial policy documents, and strongly encourages the development of power battery ladder utilization. In order to speed up the construction of recycling system, promote the auto producer responsibility extension system, and promote the recovery of power battery, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology has established the "New Energy Vehicle Waste Power Battery Comprehensive Utilization Industry Standard Conditions" enterprise, with 17 provinces and cities and regions and China Tower shares Co., Ltd. is a pilot project to do a good job in the recycling of new energy vehicle power batteries. At present, the target targets for power battery ladder use include shared electric bicycles, three-wheel low-speed electric vehicles, four-wheel low-speed electric vehicles, sightseeing patrol cars, forklifts, AGV vehicles, construction machinery vehicles, batteries on tower base stations, solar street lamps, and solar energy storage. Electric battery, etc.
The material recycling is mainly for heavy-duty batteries, and the battery performance is reduced to less than 30% of the original performance. Generally, the recycling materials are used, and the electrode materials are extracted and recovered by chemical means, especially cobalt, nickel, lithium, etc. Precious metal.
Recycling of materials can reduce the pollution of heavy metals on soil and water resources, and the recovered heavy metals can be reused in the production of power batteries, which has certain economic value.
How to further standardize the recycling of power batteries?
At present, there are still many unreasonable phenomena in the recycling and utilization of power batteries, which are in urgent need of regulation. In this regard, Zheng Zheng gives four suggestions.
First, develop industry standards and improve industry policies
Joint industry associations, vehicle and power battery manufacturers, testing institutions, etc., to develop automotive power battery industry standards, issues preparation and publicity work, strengthen the guidance and regulation of the development of automotive power battery industry; government-led development of automotive power batteries Industry policy to speed up the implementation of the revised State Council Order No. 307 and the extension of production responsibility policies.
Second, improve the design of new energy vehicles and promote industrial standardization
On the basis of meeting the basic requirements of the personalized design of electric vehicles, the standardization of power battery power is promoted, and vehicles of different brands and models can be compatible with battery modules of different systems and brands.
Third, promote the development of new energy vehicle battery rental and power exchange mode
As the fast charge causes the life cycle of the power battery to be greatly shortened, the battery rental and power exchange mode will become a necessary supplement for the development of electric vehicles in the future.
Fourth, increase government support and improve the market supervision system
Increase financial subsidies for recycling enterprises, encourage enterprises to carry out the utilization of automobile power battery recycling ladders; at the same time establish and improve the market supervision system, guide and standardize enterprise production and market consumption