When the first batch of electric vehicles began to be phased out, a spectacular power battery “retired tide” swept through, and power battery recycling became an important issue facing the entire industry.
Recently, at the China Automotive Industry Development (TEDA) International Forum, Cai Jielian, deputy director of the Transportation Services Department of the Ministry of Transport, proposed that “it is necessary to speed up the implementation of the power battery recycling system.” However, recently, the China Business News reporter survey It is found that the tens of billion-level power battery recycling market with the rapid growth of electric vehicles has the hidden danger of “underground recycling”.
In the investigation, the reporter found that many “small workshops” use the scorpion with formal recycling qualification to do the power battery recycling and dismantling business, which increases the risk to the environment and the healthy development of the power battery recycling industry.
In the face of the "underground recycling" chaos, BAIC New Energy said in an interview with reporters: "If it is necessary to completely solve the environmental pollution risks, it is more important that the industry and the government must strengthen supervision and will release relevant management regulations and standards. The system has been put in place to rectify the current situation of some small and irregular workshops that are responsible for recycling. Because these small workshops do not have relevant qualifications, there are widespread safety hazards and environmental risks."
In response to the recommendation No. 3239 of the Second Session of the 13th National People's Congress, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology stated that “the recycling of new energy vehicles' power batteries involves multiple links in the industrial chain and is a complex system project. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology will promote the region through pilot demonstrations. Strengthen cooperation, realize information sharing in all links, and build a benign development of power battery recycling system."
Entering the large-scale retirement period
The power battery has entered a large-scale retirement period, which will promote the development of the waste battery recycling market.
Since 2015, the production and sales volume of new energy vehicles in China has been the world's number one for four consecutive years. The rapid growth of sales of new energy vehicles has driven the strong development of power battery capacity. From 2015 to 2018, China's power battery installed capacity is 16GWh. It has grown to 57GWh, with a compound annual growth rate of 54%.
As the installed capacity of power batteries rises, the problem of power battery recycling becomes more and more urgent. According to the research of China Merchants Securities, according to the life battery life of 4 years to 6 years, the power battery produced in 2014 began to enter the scrapping period in 2018. It is estimated that by 2020, China will produce about 240,000 tons of decommissioned lithium-ion batteries. In 2022, 530,000 tons of decommissioned lithium-ion batteries will be produced.
According to the calculation of the service life of 4 years, 2018 is the first year of power battery recycling, and 2019 is ushered in the retirement period of power battery scale. At the same time, with the arrival of the large-scale scrapping period, the business opportunities of the power battery recycling industry have gradually become prominent.
According to the "In-depth Research Report on Power Battery Recycling Industry" released by the future think tank, the market space for power batteries is expected to exceed 60 billion yuan from 2019 to 2025, with a compound growth rate of 50%.
Among them, from 2018 to 2020, the total utilization space of ladders will total 4.7 billion yuan, and the accumulated market space will reach 17.1 billion yuan by 2025. From 2019 to 2025, the market space for metal recycling of nickel, cobalt, manganese and lithium in ternary lithium batteries is about 43.6 billion yuan.
In the face of hidden huge opportunities, in addition to third-party recycling companies represented by Hunan Bangpu and GEM, many car companies have also begun to participate. Taking Beiqi New Energy as an example, the reporter was informed that since 2016, Beiqi New Energy has started to strategically lay out the recycling of power batteries with the main line of “building network, building standards and building models”, and established the Beijing core battery. Technology Co., Ltd. is responsible for the development of technology and business model attempts.
There are also business opportunities.
The lead-acid battery recycles the unique "black workshop" phenomenon, and the power lithium battery has not been able to avoid it. In the investigation, the reporter found that the power lithium battery also has the hidden danger of “underground recycling”.
The reporter enters the keyword "power battery recycling" in the search engine, and the search result automatically pushes a variety of power battery recycling advertisements. Among them, many "small workshops"-like enterprises use the scorpion with formal recycling qualifications to do new energy power battery recycling and dismantling business.
Subsequently, the reporter called a telephone called Dongguan Dongji Renewable Resources Recycling Co., Ltd., indicating that it would sell BYD Tang's scrapped power battery. The company staff told reporters that there are recycling outlets in Beijing, which can be recycled at home, 9,000 yuan / ton. The reporter is concerned that the recycling price of this company is slightly higher than the market price of 8,000 yuan / ton. Regarding the use of recycling, the above-mentioned staff told reporters that “recycling, (the company) itself to dismantle and refine the metal (sales).”
Is there the ability and qualification to disassemble new energy vehicle power batteries? The above staff told the reporter, "We are qualified, but not issued (on the official website). If a car is to be sold, we do not show qualifications. We obtained the qualifications last year, another company registered (acquired). Others It is inconvenient to disclose." When the reporter said that he would go to the Beijing outlet to understand the situation, the above staff only said, "We can collect it at home."
At the same time, the reporter saw from the official website that this company mainly does 18650 battery, mobile phone battery recycling, tablet battery and other battery recycling business. So, is there the ability and qualification to disassemble the new energy vehicle power battery? The reporter checked Tianyan and found that the company's shareholding structure is simple and has not been affiliated with any company.
In addition, the public information shows that at present, there are five enterprises that meet the "Standard Conditions for the Comprehensive Utilization of Waste Energy and Power Storage Battery of New Energy Vehicles", namely Zhejiang Huizhou Huayou Cobalt New Material Co., Ltd., Jiangxi Shengzhou Haopeng Technology Co., Ltd., Hubei Jingmen Green Meixin Materials Co., Ltd., Hunan Bangpu Cycle Technology Co., Ltd., Guangdong Guanghua Technology Co., Ltd.
A practitioner in the power battery industry told reporters that “unprofessional, informal recycling and dismantling are extremely harmful. Because of the lack of dismantling ability, some small workshop-like enterprises will dismantle in a very rude manner and only take away The valuable part, the rest will not cost to deal with, and it is extremely harmful to the environment."
According to the "Research Report on the Recycling and Utilization of New Energy Vehicle Power Battery" issued by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (hereinafter referred to as the "Investigation Report"), there are two main types of power lithium battery pollution, one is heavy metal pollution. The positive electrode material of the battery contains heavy metals such as nickel and cobalt, which will cause heavy metal pollution without professional recycling. The second is electrolyte contamination. The electrolyte solute LiPF6 is toxic and deliquescent, which causes fluorine pollution, which causes water pollution.
At the same time, the above-mentioned practitioners in the power battery industry told reporters that the ternary lithium battery contains important mineral resources such as cobalt, nickel, lithium, manganese and rare earth. If it is not effectively recycled and utilized, it will cause the non-renewable resources. Great waste.
Urgent to cut off "workshop" recycling
"If it is necessary to completely solve the risk of environmental pollution, it is more important that the industry and the government must strengthen supervision, put the relevant management norms and standards systems that have been released in place, and rectify the situation of some non-standard small workshops that are responsible for recycling." New energy sources said in an interview with reporters.
"The state should strictly investigate and deal with enterprises that do not meet the national standards and fail to meet environmental protection standards; eliminate some waste battery recycling enterprises with backward technology, high energy consumption and high pollution, strictly investigate and deal with second-hand recyclers and individuals to purchase used batteries, and increase the waste battery traceability system. Management, to avoid the flow of waste batteries into illegal traders." Tianneng battery insiders told reporters.
So who is more suitable for recycling? According to the "research report", there are mainly two modes in the current power battery recycling system. One is dominated by producers, and automobile production enterprises use sales channels to build a decommissioned battery recycling system, and recycle decommissioned batteries to transfer comprehensive utilization enterprises to deal with or cooperate with them to utilize the remaining value of batteries; the other is based on third parties. Recycling companies cooperate with automobile and battery manufacturers to build a shared recycling service network and centrally recycle the retired batteries of new energy vehicles of cooperative enterprises.
The reporter noted that in order to regulate the recycling and reuse of power batteries, with the support of the state, automobile manufacturers have built recycling systems in various forms. At present, 45 companies including Beiqi New Energy and GAC Mitsubishi have established 3,204 recycling service outlets, mainly in areas with high holdings of new energy vehicles in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and Central China.
However, some people in the industry said that power battery recycling as a new topic, many vehicle companies are still in the start-up phase, and profitability is very difficult.
Beiqi New Energy told reporters that the recycling of power batteries is a new business for car companies. Now it is advancing this work with the mode of internal entrepreneurship. "Since it is a startup, it will definitely carry out various resources, including equipment. , factory buildings, talents, etc., have not achieved profit in the past three years."
So, in the context of the current winter of the car market, will this business become a burden for car companies? Beiqi New Energy responded that “in the current big situation, it is indeed necessary to increase the investment and courage. But in the long run, this investment will not be a burden, but investment will bring a rich enterprise. The return can also lay a solid foundation for fulfilling environmental responsibility."