As the world's largest new energy vehicle market, China will mainly be in the passenger car direction in the second half, while the power battery used in passenger cars is mainly based on ternary batteries.
In the four main materials of the power battery (positive material, anode material, electrolyte and separator), the cathode material accounts for 40% of the cost and directly determines the energy density of the cell.
According to the technical route of the positive electrode material, the power battery is mainly divided into three types: ternary (NCA/NCM), lithium iron phosphate and lithium manganate.
The ternary material has high energy density, but the cycle life is relatively short, the safety is poor, and the high temperature performance is poor. It is mainly used in passenger cars. The lithium iron phosphate battery has a long charge and discharge cycle life, but the energy density is low and the low temperature performance is poor. On commercial vehicles; lithium manganese oxide batteries have low energy density, poor cycle stability and storage performance at high temperatures, and are currently produced and used in domestically.
The ternary materials are mainly NCM and NCA. With the increase of nickel content, the specific capacity of ternary cathode materials gradually increases, and the energy density of the cells increases.
Under the double stimulation of the new energy vehicle's cruising range and the rising cobalt price, the NCM811 and NCA materials of the high-nickel system have become the hotspot of the market competition.
At present, from the choice of domestic power battery manufacturers, there are more people choosing NCM811 routes, and fewer NCA routes are selected. The main reason is that the thermal stability of high-nickel materials under charge is poor, resulting in battery safety. The decline in performance has caused battery manufacturers and end-product users to worry about the safety of NCA batteries. It is necessary to carry out systematic and reliable safety design from the aspects of battery design, power supply system design and power supply.
Secondly, there is serious gas production during the charging and discharging process, which causes the battery to bulge and deform, the cycle and the shelf life are reduced, and the battery has safety hazards. Therefore, the NCA battery is usually made of a pressure-resistant cylindrical battery case, which reduces the gas production to control the battery bulging. Deformation problem.
In addition, NCA requires that the humidity should be controlled below 10% in the whole process of battery production, while other materials currently only need strict control of humidity in the liquid injection process, which poses a great challenge for domestic enterprises.
From the perspective of battery production process, the production of NCA batteries is difficult. The companies that can produce NCA batteries around the world mainly include Panasonic, Samsung and AESC, and NCM has many manufacturers, including LG and Ningde era.
Globally, the passenger car enterprise adopting NCA ternary battery is mainly Tesla. Tesla not only solves the problem of thermal runaway caused by the increase of energy density through battery system management technology, but also through the car. The design successfully circumvents the problem of short cycle life of NCA batteries.
Many of the new forces in China are known to be China's Tesla, but none of them want to learn that Tesla uses NCA batteries. The reason behind this is that there are factors that are more difficult to manage than energy batteries, but they may also want to Used but out of stock, because Panasonic's NCA batteries are dedicated to Tesla and are in short supply. Other sized manufacturers that can replace Panasonic have not appeared.
Tesla's vehicle design and battery system control capabilities are not short-term imitation and surpassing for most Chinese car companies in the short term.
In the future, Chinese companies will also hope to build mature NCA batteries, and the needs of the OEMs will indeed exist. This will be a new blue ocean in China's power battery market.
From the supply side, the ternary battery power route for electric vehicles has not yet been fully finalized and is still evolving. In addition, although China has mainly chosen the NCM route based on factors such as technology, cost and subsidies, this does not mean that there is no new opportunity for the NCA route.
From the demand side, as more and more different technical backgrounds and different industry talents enter the car industry, the demand for power batteries varies from OEM to mainframe, and the NCA battery has different driving ability. The future NCA will become A new choice in the market.