Which Is More Suitable For Electric Vehicles?lithium-ion Battery Or Lead-acid Battery?

- May 08, 2020-

Electric vehicles rely on batteries, which come in two varieties: lead-acid and lithium-ion. We stand in the objective, fair perspective of lead-acid battery and lithium battery, which is more suitable for electric vehicles?


The dividing line of green leaves in spring


1 What is a lead-acid battery?


Lead-acid battery (VRLA) is a battery whose electrodes are mainly made of lead and its oxides and whose electrolyte is a sulfuric acid solution. The main component of the positive electrode is lead dioxide and the main component of the negative electrode is lead. Under charging condition, the main components of positive and negative electrodes are lead sulfate.


The nominal voltage of a single grid lead-acid battery is 2.0v, which can discharge up to 1.5v and charge up to 2.4v. In the application, 6 single-grid lead-acid batteries are often used in series to form the nominal 12V lead-acid battery, as well as 24V, 36V, 48V, etc.



2 What is lithium battery?


"Lithium battery" is a kind of battery made of lithium metal or lithium alloy as negative material, using non-water electrolyte solution. Lithium metal batteries were first proposed and studied by Gilbert n. Lewis in 1912. In the 1970s, M. S. Whittingham proposed and began working on lithium-ion batteries. Due to the very active chemical characteristics of lithium metal, the processing, preservation and use of lithium metal have very high requirements on the environment.


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Therefore, lithium battery has not been used for a long time. With the development of science and technology, lithium battery has become the mainstream.


Lithium batteries can be roughly divided into two types: lithium metal batteries and lithium ion batteries. Lithium-ion batteries do not contain metallic lithium and are rechargeable. The fifth generation of rechargeable battery lithium metal battery was born in 1996, its safety, specific capacity, self-discharge rate and performance ratio are better than lithium ion battery. Because of its own high-tech requirements, only a handful of companies in a few countries are making lithium-metal batteries.